|Dr. Greg Evans
Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Science
Dr Evans’ research examines the source and composition of airborne particles, a key pollutant contributing to episodes of poor air quality in large cities. This research utilizes a combination of advanced instrumentation and modelling to understanding spatial and temporal trends in the concentration, composition and origins of these particles. The goal is to make key connections between emissions of pollutants, the quality and composition of urban air, and the impact of aerosols on human health and the environment. Focus areas include the development and application of high time resolution instruments in fieldwork, such as single particle mass spectrometry, the use of receptor modelling for sources identification and characterisation, and the exposure of urban populations to vehicle emissions.
1. R.M. Healy, U. Sofowote, Y. Su, J. Debosz, M. Noble, C.-H. Jeong, J.M. Wang, N. Hilker, G.J. Evans, G. Doerksen, K. Jones, A. Munoz, "Ambient measurements and source apportionment of fossil fuel and biomass burning black carbon in Ontario" Atmospheric Environment 161, 34-47 (2017) [Online]
2. J.M. Wang, C.-H. Jeong, N. Zimmerman, R.M. Healy, N. Hilker, and G.J. Evans, "Real-World Emission of Particles from Vehicles: Volatility and the Effects of Ambient Temperature" Environmental Science & Technology 51 (7), 4081-4090 (2017) [Online]
3. C.-H. Jeong, A. Traub, G.J. Evans, "Exposure to ultrafine particles and black carbon in diesel-powered commuter trains", Atmospheric Environment 155, 46-52 (2017) [Online]
4. M.L. North, J.R. Brook, E.Y. Lee, V. Omana, N.M. Daniel, L.M. Steacy, G.J. Evans, M.L. Diamond, A.K. Ellis, "The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome", Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 118, (4), 465-473 (2017) [Online]
5. David S. Josey, Stephanie R. Nyikos, Richard K. Garner, Aleksa Dovijarski, Jeffrey S. Castrucci, Jonathan M. Wang, Greg J. Evans, and Timothy P. Bender, "Outdoor Performance and Stability of Boron Subphthalocyanines Applied as Electron Acceptors in Fullerene-Free Organic Photovoltaics," ACS Energy Letters 2 (3), 726-732 (2017) [Online]
6. K.V. Ryswyk, A.T. Anastasopolos, G. Evans, L. Sun, K. Sabaliauskas, R. Kulka, L. Wallace, and S. Weichenthal, "Metro Commuter Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution and PM2.5-Associated Elements in Three Canadian Cities: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study," Environmental Science & Technology Article DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b05775 (2017) [Online]
Dr. Abbatt has a number of research interests, including studies of atmospheric aerosol properties and composition, gas-particle chemistry, and the roles that particles play in the formation of both liquid water and ice clouds. Areas of interest extend from the urban setting where particles are known to have impacts on human health, to the regional and global scale where particles constitute an important component of the climate system. Studies are performed both in the laboratory and the field, using a combination of specialized in-lab-built and commercial state-of-the-art equipment. Prof. Abbatt has served on the editorial boards of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, and the Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. He is the recipient of a Premier’s Research Excellence Award and a New Opportunities Award from the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and he is also an Associate Director for University of Toronto’s Centre for Global Change Science.
1. Abbatt, J.P.D.; Thomas, J.L.; Abrahamsson, K.; Boxe, C.; Granfors, A.; Jones, A.E.; King, M.D.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Shepson, P.B.; Sodeau, J.; Toohey, D.W.; Toubin, C.; von Glasow, R.; Wren, S.N.; Yang, X. Halogen Activation via Interactions with Environmental Ice and Snow in the Polar Lower Troposphere and Other Regions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2012, 12, 6237-6271. [online]
2. Abbatt, J.P.D.; Lee, A.K.Y.; Thornton, J.A. Quantifying Trace Gas Uptake to Tropospheric Aerosol: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 4, 6555 – 6581. [online]
3. Lee, A. K. Y.; Hayden, K.L.; Herckes, P.; Leaitch, W. R.; Liggio, J.; Macdonald, A. M.; Abbatt, J.P.D. Characterization of Aerosol and Cloud Water at a Mountain Site During WACS 2010: Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Through Oxidative Cloud Processing. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2012, 12, 7103-7116. [online]
4. McWhinney, R.D.; Gao, S.S.; Zhou, S.; Abbatt, J.P.D. Evaluation of the Effects of Ozone Oxidation on Redox Cycling Activity of Two-Stroke Engine Exhaust Particles. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2011, 45, 291-295.
5. George, I.J.; Abbatt, J.P.D. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Gas-Phase Free Radicals. Nat. Chem. 2010, 2, 713-722. [online]
Dr. Edgar J. Acosta
Dr. Acosta’s research involves the study of interactions and forces at interfaces, and more specifically, the use of surface active agents (surfactants) to modify those forces. One of those interfaces is the air-liquid interface of the alveoli. At this interface, lung surfactants (mixture of lipids and proteins secreted by the alveolar tissue) reduce the surface tension of the interface, preventing the collapse of the lungs upon exhalation and maintaining a large interfacial area for gas exchange. These lung surfactants are one of the gates that air pollutants need to pass in order to enter the body. We seek to understand the role of lung surfactants on the transport of these pollutants and the potential effects that lung pollutants might have on the behavior of lung surfactants. This understanding might help us assess risks of poor respiratory compliance for healthy and at-risk individuals for different exposure events.
|Dr. Jeffrey Brook
Senior Scientist, Environment Canada
Dr. Brook began his career as a meteorologist before undertaking graduate work at The University of Michigan. Dr. Brook conducts original research in air pollutant deposition and urban/regional air quality, emphasizing fine particulate matter, ambient measurement, and exposure assessment in support of a wide range of health-effect study designs. This latter research involves the interface between air pollutant characterization, with source-receptor analysis, and toxicological, clinical and both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies.
Dr. Arthur Chan
Dr. Chan’s research focuses on investigating the sources and processing of organic compounds in the atmosphere through detailed chemical characterization. Major topics include developing analytical techniques to speciate complex organic mixtures, studying detailed organic composition of emission sources, such as motor vehicles and forest fires, and investigating oxidation pathways of organic compounds to form aerosol. The goals of these field and laboratory studies are to understand the precursors and the formation pathways of atmospheric organic aerosol, and to provide essential constraints for atmospheric modeling and design of effective mitigation strategies.
There are two major themes of research in Dr. Chow’s laboratory. The first is focused on underlying the role and regulation of Syk mediating airway inflammation following exposure to human rhinovirus (the most common cause of acute infections in humans and the cause of the common cold) and in response to environmental air pollution. The second theme focuses on the role of Syk in modulating tissue repair and airway remodeling, a common feature in chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease and graft rejection following lung transplantation.
Research is carried out in vitro using mono- and co-cultures of airway epithelial and airway smooth muscle cells, and in vivo using several animal models of allergen-induced asthma and real-time exposure to environmental airway pollution.
1. Castellanos Penton P; Wang, X.; Amatullah, H.; Cooper, J.; Godri, K.; North, M.L.; Khanna, N.; Scott, J.A.; Chow, C.W. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibition attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and pollution-induced enhanced airway response in a chronic mouse model of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. [Online early access]. DOI:pii: S0091-6749(12)01255-9. 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.07.039. Published Online: Sept 13, 2012. [online]
2. Amatullah, H.; North, M.L.; Akhtar, U.S.; Rastogi, N.; Urch, B.; Silverman, F.S.; Chow, C.W.; Evans, G.J.; Scott. J.A. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter. Inhal. Toxicol. 2012, 24 (3),161-71. [online]
3. Wang, X.; Mychajlowycz, M.; Lau, C.; Gutierrez, C.; Scott, J.A.; Chow, C.W. Spleen Tyrosine kinase mediates BEAS-2B cell migration and proliferation and human rhinovirus-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2012, 340 (2), 277-85. [online]
Miriam's interests focus on chemical contaminants from source through to environmental behaviour, and ecosystem and human exposure. The chemicals of interest include persistent and pseudo-persistent organic compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants and phthalates, and metals. Her research group looks at these chemicals by measuring their concentrations in the environment (outdoors and indoors) and mathematically modelling their fate. Their studies take multi-media (air, water, soil, etc.) and multidisciplinary perspectives (science and policy).
1. ABBASI G*, A SAINI*, E GOOSEY+, ML DIAMOND. 2016. Product screening for sources of halogenated flame retardants in Canadian house and office dust. Sci Total Environ. 545-546: 299-307.
2. ZHANG X, R SŰHRING+, D SERODIO*, M BONNELL, N SUNDIN, ML DIAMOND. 2015. Novel flame retardants: estimating the physical-chemical properties and environmental fate of 94 halogenated and organophosphate PBDE replacements. Chemosphere. 144: 2401-2407. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.017
3. BLUM, A, SA BALAN, M SCHERINGER, X TRIER, G GOLDENMAN, IT COUSINS, M DIAMOND, T FLETCHER, C HIGGINS AE LINDEMAN, G PEASLEE, P DE VOOGT, ZY WANG, R WEBER. 2015. The Madrid statement on poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Environ Health Persp 123(5): A107-A111.
4. SAINI A*, JO OKEME*, E GOOSEY+, ML DIAMOND. 2015. Calibration of two passive air samplers for monitoring phthalates and halogenated flame retardants in indoor air. Chemosphere 137:166-173.
5. MELYMUK L, GOOSEY E+, N RIDDELL, ML DIAMOND. 2015. Interlaboratory study of novel halogenated flame retardants: InterFLab. Analytical Bioanalytical Chem 407(22): 6759-6769. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-015-8843-7
6. DIAMOND ML, CA DE WIT, S MOLANDER, M SCHERINGER, T BACKHAUS, R LOHMANN, R ARVIDSSON, Å BERGMAN, M HAUSCHILD, I HOLOUBEK, L PERSSON, B SUZUKI, M VIGHI, C ZETZSCH. 2015. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution. Environment International 78:8-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.001
7. ABBASI G*, AM BUSER, A SOEHL, M MURRAY, ML DIAMOND. 2015. Stocks and flows of PBDEs from use to waste in U.S. and Canada from 1970-2020. Environ Sci Technol 49(3): 1521-1528. DOI: 10.1021/es504007v
Dr. Marianne Hatzopoulou
1. Farrell, W., Deville-Cavellin, L., Weichenthal, S., Goldberg, M., Hatzopoulou, M. 2015. Capturing the urban canyon effect on particle number concentrations across a large road network using spatial analysis tools. Building and Environment, 92: 328-334. [online]
2. Shekkarrizfard, M., Shamsunnahar, Y., Valois, M.F., Goldberg, M., Crouse, D., Ross, N., Parent, M.E., Hatzopoulou, M. 2015. Investigating the role of transport models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects. Environmental Research, 140: 282-295. [online]
3. Ghafghazi, G. and Hatzopoulou, M. 2015. Simulating the air quality impacts of traffic calming schemes in a dense urban neighbourhood. Transportation Research Part D, 35: 11-22.[online]
4. Alam, A. and Hatzopoulou, M. 2014. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations? Atmospheric Environment, 89: 129-139.[online]
Dr. Charles. Q. Jia
Professor, Depart. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto
1. Huang, L.; Gong, S.L.; Jia, C.Q.; D. Lavoué. Relative contributions of anthropogenic emissions to black carbon aerosol in the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res. 2010, 115, D19208. [online]
2. Huang, L.; Gong, S.L.; Jia, C.Q. Importance of deposition processes in simulating the seasonality of the Arctic black carbon aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.2010, 115, D17207. [online]
3. Huang, L.; Gong, S.L.; Sharm, S.; Lavoué, D.; Jia, C.Q. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian High Arctic in winter and spring (1990-2005). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2010, 10 (11), 5065-5073. [online]
|Dr. Jennifer Murphy
Associate Professor, Dept. of Chemistry
Dr Murphy’s research focuses on field studies, in which state-of-the-art instrumentation is deployed to various locations to make in situ measurements of atmospheric constituents. These observations can be used to understand the emissions, chemical and physical processing and deposition of gaseous and aerosol pollutants in the atmosphere. An important research goal is to develop techniques to make accurate measurements of aerosol chemical speciation in the urban and remote atmosphere.
Dr. Jeremy A. Scott
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Dr. Scott’s research interests are focused on the mechanisms related to the airways hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in asthma, and the effects of occupational and environmental pollutants on the airways. Specific investigations are examining the role of L-arginine metabolism in airway responsiveness, the role of hematopoietic cell populations in pollution-induced exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms, and the effect of routes of exposure to allergens on the subsequent development of sensitization/tolerance.
1. Akhtar, U. McWhinney, R.;Rastogi, N.; Abbatt, J.; Evans, G.J.; Scott, J.A. Cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects of ambient and source-related particulate matter (PM) in relation to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine adsorption by particles. Inhal Toxicol. 2010, 22 (S2), 37–47. [online]
2. North, M.L.; Amatullah, H.; Khanna, N; Urch, B.; Grasemann, H.; Silverman, F.S.; Scott, J.A. Induction of arginase by exposure to air pollution exacerbates the airways symptoms in murine models of asthma. Respir Res. 2011, 12, No.19. [online]
3. Amatullah, H.; North, M.L.; Akhtar, U.S.; Rastogi, N.; Urch, B.; Silverman, F.S.; Chow, C.W.; Evans, G.J.; Scott J.A. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter. Inhal Toxicol. 2012, 24 (3), 161–171. [online]
4. Rastogi, N.; McWhinney, R.D.; Akhtar, U.S.; Urch, B.; Fila, M.; Abbatt, J.P.D.; Scott, J.A.; Silverman, F.S.; Brook, J.R.; Evans, G.J. Physical characterization of a coarse, fine, and ultrafine high-volume particle concentrator system. Aerosol. Sci. Tech. 2012, 46,1015–1024.[online]
5. Castellanos Penton P.; North, M.L.; Amatullah, H.; Khanna, N.; Wang, X.; Scott, J.A.; Chow, C.W. Syk inhibition attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and pollution-induced enhanced airway response in a chronic murine model of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. [Online early access]. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.07.039. Published Online: Sept 17, 2012. [online]
Dr. Jeffrey Siegel
Dept. of Civil Engineering
1. Stephens, B.R.; Siegel, J.A. Penetration of ambient submicron particles into single-family residences: associations with building characteristics. Indoor Air. 2012, 22, 501–513. [online]
2. Stephens, B.R.; Siegel, J.A. Comparison of test methods for determining particle removal efficiency of filters in residential and light-commercial central HVAC systems. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 2012, 46, 504-513. [online]
3. Waring, M.S.; Siegel, J.A. Indoor air quality implications of using ion generators in residences. Indoor Air. 2011, 21, 267-276. [online]
4. Noris, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Kinney, K.A. Evaluation of HVAC filters as a sampling mechanism for indoor microbial communities. Atmos. Environ. 2011, 45, 338-346. [online]
5. Mukai, C.; Siegel, J.A.; Novoselac, A. Impact of airflow characteristics on particle resuspension from indoor surfaces. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 2009, 43, 1022-1032. [online]
Dr. Frances Silverman
Director Research, Gage Occupational and Environmental Health Unit
Associate Professor of Medicine
|Dr. Jim Wallace
Professor, Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering
Dr. Wallace’s research examines the generation of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions in combustion engines, as well as the control of those emissions using exhaust aftertreatment devices such as catalytic converters, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The research has a strong focus on the use of alternative fuels as a means of reducing exhaust emissions. Current research ranges from fundamental ignition studies of natural gas injected in diesel engines to more applied projects examining how biodiesel fuel use affects the operation of diesel particulate filters. Fuels under investigation for spark ignition engines include ethanol-gasoline blends, biogas and hydrogen. The research is facilitated by the outstanding experimental facilities and instrumentation available in the Engine Research and Development Laboratory.